Romania – key data
Area: 238,391 km² (of which land: 229,891 km², water: 8,500 km²)
Population: 21.9 million (July 2011 estimate, CIA). Composition: Romanians 89.5%, Hungarians 6.6%, Roma 2.5%, Ukrainians 0.3%,German 0.3%, Russians 0.2%, Turks 0.2%, others 0.4% (2002 census).
Population density: 92 people per km²
Population growth: -0.252% per year (2011, CIA)
Capital: Bucharest (1.93 million residents, 2007, agglomeration: 2.6 million residents, 2007)
Highest point: Moldoveanu, 2,544 m
Lowest point: Black Sea, 0 m
Form of government: Romania has been a republic since 1991. The Romanian Constitution dates from 1991, the last constitutional amendment was made in 2003. The Romanian Parliament is composed of two chambers. Romania has been a member of the since January 1st, 2007European Union .
Administrative division: 41 districts (judet, plural: judete): Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea and Vrancea
as well as the capital Bucharest
Head of State: President Traian B? Sescu, with interruptions since December 20, 2004. In 2012, a referendum on his removal failed due to insufficient turnout.
Head of Government: Prime Minister Victor Ponta, since May 7, 2012
Language: the official language in Romania is Romanian (91%). Hungarian is spoken particularly in regions close to the border (6.7%). Romani (language of the Roma): 1.1%, others: 1.2% (2002 census).
English and French are also understood and spoken in tourist regions, and German is also spoken in the south-western part of Romania (Banat) and Transylvania (Transylvania).
Religion: Orthodox Christians 86.8%, Protestants 7.5%, Catholics 4.7%, others (mostly Muslims) and no information 0.9%, no religious affiliation 0.1% (2002 census).
Local time: CET + 1 h. Between the last Sunday in March and the last Sunday in October there is summer time in Romania (CET + 2 hours).
The time difference to Central Europe is +1 hour in both winter and summer.
International phone code: +40
Mains voltage: 220 V, 50 Hz
The Republic of Romania is a country in south-eastern Europe that borders Ukraine in the north, Moldova in the east, Bulgaria in the south, Serbia in the south-west and Hungary in the west. The Black Sea forms the natural border in the southeast of the country. With a total area of 238,391 square kilometers it isRomaniaabout three times as big as Austria or six times as big as Switzerland. Romania is still growing today, as the mud masses of the Danube on the delta Black Sea Increase by a few square kilometers year after year.
Around a third of Romania’s land area is covered by mountains. As a continuation of the Alps, the Carpathians stretch from Slovakia via Poland and Ukraine from the north to Romania, where they merge into the Banat Mountains in the direction of Serbia and Montenegro. The Apuseni Mountains, which are isolated from the Carpathians and also called the Western Carpathians by the Romanians, extend to the west of Romania referred to as. Karst, numerous caves and rugged ridges determine this range of mountains in the west, while the Apuseni gradually runs out into more densely wooded low mountain ranges to the north.
The Southern Carpathians contain all fourteen 2,000-meter mountains, which gave these mountains the name of the Transylvanian Alps. This mountain range consists of the Retezat Mountains with the national park of the same name, the Valcan Mountains, the Muntii Parang, Muntii Capatanii and the Muntii Cindrel. The Fagaras Mountains is after all the mightiest massif of the Romanian Carpathians, where the Moldoveanu rises with 2,544 meters as the highest mountain in Romania. In contrast to the limestone Western Carpathians, the southern mountains are predominantly rugged, rocky and extremely high alpine. The southern Carpathians end at their easternmost point in the Bucegi Mountains, which can boast particularly magnificent and bizarre rock formations.
The Eastern and Northern Carpathians then appear as low mountain ranges which, with their bubbling mud volcanoes and dense forests, are very popular with hikers and cross-country skiers. In addition to the mountain Ceahlau, also known as the “Olympus of the Carpathians”, the charming Lacul Izvorul Muntelui is also a popular destination, as it is one of the largest and most beautiful lakes in Romania. In the Caliman Mountains with their volcanic karst structures, one encounters numerous healing springs, funnel-shaped sinkholes and sulfur caves. The ice age and volcanoes have also left their traces in the northern Rodnei Mountains, which can be admired in the form of numerous caves. The Muntii Maramuresuluiclose off the Carpathian Mountains in the north of the country.
Since there are numerous springs in the Carpathian Arc that feed the most important rivers in Romania, the country is extremely water-rich. The Olt rises in the Carpathian Mountains, where it dug a deep swath into the mountains, which had an impact on the settlement and conquest of the country. The Mures also comes from these mountains and flows through the country to flow into the Tisza in Hungary. The Prut is one of the five navigable rivers in the country and is of historical importance because of its border function between Romania and Moldova. But the undoubtedly most important river in Romania is the Danube, which crosses the country for a total of 1,075 kilometers in order to achieve a grandiose Delta flowing into the Black Sea. It is the second largest river delta in Europe after the Volga Delta.
According to bridgat, Romania lies in a transition zone between a temperate climate and the more extreme continental climate. The average annual precipitation is 675 mm; in the Danube Delta about half, in the mountains twice as much.
the Temperatures in Romania can vary greatly from day to day, even in summer you cannot always count on 30 to 35 ° C. On excursions in the mountains you have to be prepared for cold winds and nights. The winters in Romania are relatively moderate, especially near the coast, but in the mountains the weather conditions are very changeable.