Sichuan [-t ʃ an], Szechwan, Szetschuan, Setschuan, province in south-central China, on Jinsha Jiang (upper reaches of the Yangtze River), 487,000 km 2, (2010) 80.4 million residents (about 5% members of national minorities in the western part: Yi, Tibetans, Miao, Qiang, Zujia, Hui etc.); The capital is Chengdu. In terms of natural space, three regions can be distinguished: the western highlands, the central to eastern Red Basin and the south-western mountain region. The Sichuan basin, which mainly occupies the east of the province and is about 220,000 km 2 in size(also because of the red sandstone that is widespread here Red basin called) is surrounded on all sides by high mountains (up to 3,100 m above sea level): in the south and south-east by the Yunnan-Guizhou-Plateau, in the north-east by the Daba Shan, in the east by the Wu Shan and in the west by the peripheral mountains of the Qinghai highlands. It is a hill country 400–800 m above sea level with sunken plains (especially Chengdu Plain in the west). The western part of the province is made up of high mountain ranges and plateaus with a cool mountain climate: in the south the northern mountain ranges of the Sinotibetan Mountains (Hengduan Shan in Chinese), which rise 4,000–5,000 m above sea level, and which are 1,000–2,000 m above sea level to the west Yunnan-Guizhou-Plateau (predominantly made of limestone) at sea level, in the northern and central area, marginal parts of the sandstone, limestone, quartzite, clay slate, Granite and gneiss existing Qinghai Highlands (Gongga Shan, 7 556 m above sea level), home of the panda bears. The panda nature reserve (UNESCO World Heritage Site) is located in the Qionglai and Jiajin Mountains. It is home to almost a third of the giant panda population and is therefore the most important protected and breeding area for this endangered species. Sheep and yak breeding play the most important role in the west of the province. It is dominated by a subtropical and humid monsoon climate, especially in the Sichuan basin there are very hot summer temperatures, where precipitation is higher than in the plateau. The determining factors are fertile soils and rich mineral resources (most important area of Chinese natural gas production near Nanchong, extraction of coal, crude oil, salt, manganese, sulfur and iron ores, deposits of vanadium, titanium, Cobalt etc.) gave rise to the main economic area of Sichuan. Rice, corn, wheat, millet, potatoes, sugar cane, tea, soybeans, citrus fruits and peanuts are grown. In addition, silkworm breeding (most important region in China), pig and poultry farming are of considerable importance.
Due to its location, the province was spatially isolated for a long time. In 1937 it was considered a »free China«; Chongqing was the war capital of the then national government. Industrialization began with the relocation of companies from eastern China after the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937 and was intensified in the 1960s and 1970s (military industries such as aviation, construction of warships); Iron ore smelting, machine and vehicle construction, chemical, cotton and food industries, especially in Chengdu, Chongqing and Zigong. Dukou in the far south is a center of the iron industry. The province, which was largely isolated until 1950, was opened up by the construction of railway lines and roads; however, inland shipping continues to play a major role on the Jinsha Jiang. International tourism gained importance.2), which has been recognized as a high-tech park since 1991 with a focus on telecommunications, microelectronics, biomedicine and mechanical engineering. Overall, Sichuan is one of the most industrialized provinces. In 2000 the only free export zone (3 km 2) so far was created in western China; Expansion to the Chengdu National High-Tech Development Western Zone. In 1997, the city of Chongqing was spun off as a city under the government (total area of the area 82 400 km 2).
Chengdu [t ʃ -], Chengtu, Tschengtu, capital of Sichuan Province, China, in the Chengdu plain, (2017) 8.9 million residents, as an agglomeration 16.0 million residents.
Universities, scientific institutes, museums; Electronics, precision mechanics, wood, textile, leather, food industry; Rail links to Chongqing and Paochi and road to Lhasa.
Central palace district from the time of the Yuan (14th century) and Ming dynasties (17th century) partially preserved.
In Chengdu since the 3rd century BC there is already the unique irrigation system of Dujiangyan (UNESCO World Heritage Site), according to bridgat, through which river water from nearby Min Jiang was distributed through countless channels in the plain.
Chongqing [t ʃ u ŋ t ʃ i ŋ ], Chungking [t ʃ u ŋ t ʃ i ŋ ], Tschungking [-t ʃ i ŋ ], city in western China, in the Red Basin, on the upper Yangtze, approx. (2017) 7.8 million residents in the actual city area, since June 18, 1997, the area under the government has been considerably expanded and has the status of a province; In addition to Chongqing, which only takes up a small part of the area, the new administrative unit includes the cities of Wanxian and Fuling as well as the previous district of Qianjiang, 82 400 km 2, total (2018) 31.0 million residents.
University, technical colleges and research institutes (e.g. for citrus fruit cultivation), people’s congress hall (1953), museum. Chongqing is one of the six ancient industrial areas in China. State industrial companies are dominant; Gas, iron ore and coal deposits, water resources; Heavy industry, aluminum production, steel production, mechanical engineering, automobile construction (trucks, motorcycles), silk, cotton, chemical industry, shipyards, oil refinery; Tourism (Yangtze River trips to the Three Gorges Dam; the construction of the Three Gorges Dam made it necessary to relocate 3 million people); international freight traffic via the most important container port (Julongpu) in western China; since 1997 motorway to Chengdu, long-distance road connection to Guangdong; Railway junction; international Airport; Trade center for southern and western China (foreign companies, e.g. Metro). Attempt to significantly increase foreign investment and trade; Establishment of multinational companies; Investments are primarily made from Hong Kong, the USA, Japan, Great Britain and Taiwan.
Probably founded at the beginning of the Zhou period (11th century BC). The city experienced a lively boom and strong industrialization during the Second World War as the temporary seat of the Chinese government (1938–46).